Tuesday, November 12, 2019

N-acetylcysteine - stock your medicine cabinet with it?

What is NAC?

NAC is a precursor to the amino acid cysteine. It is an important amino acid, which is a precursor to glutathione, the master antioxidant in your body.  So you can say that N-acetyl cysteine, is a precursor to glutathione. The journal Innovation in Clinical Neuroscience states that glutathione is a necessary antioxidant in the body. This means that N-acetylcysteine helps to reduce conditions related to oxidative stress as well as having a therapeutic effect on the brain.  (source)
  • Powerful antioxidant
  • Provides the building blocks for glutathione
  • May protect the lungs, gut, brain, liver, and kidneys
  • May defend against toxins and pollutants
  • May help with obsessive-compulsive symptoms and addiction
  • May help prevent the flu
  • Biofilm disruptor
  • Potential to improve fertility
  • May help with many chronic health problems
  • Doesn’t taste good and can cause nausea
  • May affect bleeding
  • Many purported benefits are unproven  (source)

How can it help with prevention and/or treatment of influenza or other respiratory illnesses?

I recommend watching this 11 minutes video that shows supporting evidence of NAC decreasing the total numbers of influenza cases, decreasing the severity, and decreasing the frequency and repeat illnesses of the elderly when given 600 mg NAC twice a day for 6 months.   This is not the dose for children.

Since NAC decreases the body’s inflammatory response, it may help prevent the flu or reduce symptoms of a common cold. In one study of 262 older people, NAC cut the risk of catching the flu by 54%. It could be especially helpful in the winter months when the flu season takes a hold [40].
NAC is also sometimes added to standard treatments of sinus inflammation and infections [41, 42].
In cells, NAC reduced replication of the flu virus. If the virus can’t replicate quickly, it’s easier to fight it off [43].  (Source)

A well known medication called MucoMist can be inhaled version of NAC.  It is typically given to patients who overdose on Tylenol (acetaminophen)  to treat the oncoming liver damage and to people with Cystic Fibrosis.   It decreases the viscosity or thins their secretions.  

Side effects?   

It can thin the secretions greatly, which will increase the volume of liquid secretions.  This can be an issue with children with DS, who may already have aspiration concerns.     Next, as mentioned in the video, it can lower homocysteine levels.  This is great for those with cardiovascular issues, but children and adults with DS already have a low homocysteine to begin with, so maybe this is for those times of acute illness as a temporary measure. 

Also noted addressing seizures:   Acetyl-L-carnitine At least in eyes, it appears that acetyl-L-carnitine may have antiglycation abilities (55). Hendlor and Rorvik report, “”Acetyl-L-carnitine has recently demonstrated some efficacy as a possible neuroprotective agent for strokes, Alzheimer’s disease, Down’s syndrome and for the management of various neuropathies…recent studies show beneficial effects in Alzheimer’s disease. Younger patients seem to benefit most” (55). However, some few with seizure disorders have reported increases in seizure frequency or severity on acetyl-L-carnitine (54). As the DS population is much more inclined towards seizure disorders than the general public (56), caution would seem to be advisable regarding using acetyl-L-carnitine to attempt to prevent glycation. (source)

Here on the Got Down Syndrome blog post, they also express concerns about NAC increasing intestinal permeability, so again, it doesn't seem like it is supported for long term use in those with DS.  

The winter months are upon us, which means more time spent indoors.  This contributes to greater spread of respiratory illnesses among both children and adults at work and school.  It only takes one person in your family to catch it and "share" it with the entire family due to close proximity.   You also can't turn on the television right now without mention of the influenza virus and the "flu shot".  This is a supplement that deserves your consideration when exposed to acute respiratory illnesses, and for the hard working moms and dads to potentially help them recover quicker, ,and possibly for our children for a temporary amount of time, to potentially help them in their battles against the common cold, influenza, or other respiratory illnesses.  See previous post about TF here to learn other ways to support your immune system.  In my opinion as a mom, I think we ALL should all be on transfer factor products.

Please take this information as a launching point to do your own further research.  Then I highly recommend discussing with your physician to see if this information can help your family.    As always, I am not diagnosing, treating, or trying to cure any disease or medical condition with this information.    You may contact me to learn more about educating your immune system and what products I use for my family.


Friday, November 1, 2019

Gut, Respiratory, Allergies, Immune system, & more. A supplement that just may help!

Does someone in your family have frequent respiratory illnesses, allergies, gut or bowel issues, autoimmune conditions, altered glucose levels, immunodeficiency, low IgA levels, diarrhea, skin disorders, inflammation? 

(picture source and great article     )

We all want to find ways to help our families be healthier, stronger, and more resistant to viruses and bacteria.  I am a retired Physicians Assistant, meaning I now dedicate all my time to homeschooling, working on our farm, and researching how I can help my family in the most natural way possible.  I have two daughters, one is 8 years old and happens to have Down syndrome (DS).  Children with DS can have "weaker", more susceptible immune systems.  The average cold can be brutal on their system, and we have had known many who endured a hospitalization from it.  I personally know many adults and children who have an IgA deficiency, which allows them to "catch" almost every cold/respiratory virus they are exposed to.  

First, I recommend reading some of my previous posts about how to clean up your lifestyle and diet since there is no "magic pill".   These posts will give you a lot of information you need outside of today's information:

As always, I must state I am not giving anyone medical advice, nor attempting to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness or disease. I am not stating there is a "miracle cure" for anything.  I am just providing information for you to take to your doctor and discuss if it is appropriate for your child and your family.   Please do additional research and make an educated and informed decision. 

This is a lengthy post, because I feel it is important to understand the what, how, and why.  PLEASE READ ALL THE WAY TO THE END.  I sincerely believe there will be areas of relevance for everybody such as gastric inflammation from NSAID use, infectious diarrhea, combating C Diff, helping to prevent or decrease the duration of respiratory illnesses, helping with increased intestinal permeability (aka leaky gut), allergies, diabetes, athletic performance, potentially helping with cancer, and providing support to boost the immune system.  Keep reading to see the research studies that make associations and claims about this conditions. 

  1.  An overview of the immune system.
  2. What is colostrum and transfer factors?
  3. How can this supplement potentially help my family's immune system and health?
  4. Side effects.
  5. Dosages.
  6. Where can I find these products?

(If you are overwhelmed with too much information, skip down to #4 section for supporting research and see if this applies to you..)


This information is taken from the Book: Transfer Factors and the Immune System by Dr Aaron White. 

It is the job of the immune system to protect the body from outside microbial threats, like bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, and to quickly get rid of body cells that become cancerous or damaged in other ways.  It runs 24 hours a day, and is amazingly complex.   Let's begin by looking at various cell types in the immune system. 

White cells (leukocytes) -  Lymphocytes and Phagocytes

Lymphocytes - born in the bone marrow.  Always on the look out for infection or cells that have died or become cancerous.  Some are called B-cells and T-cells, and they look for self vs non self cells based on the presence of antigens.  B cells see an antigen and generate an antibody for it. Antibodies belong to a family of proteins called immunoglobulins (Ig).  Antibodies can incapacitate the pathogen and/or mark them for destruction.  B cells can only produce antibodies that recognize one antigen.  So the immune system has to produce thousands of different types of B cells for each specific threat. Sometimes the threat may be dust, pollen, pet dander and symptoms of allergies can occur.  They are also responsible for autoantibodies that stick to proteins of healthy cells creating autoimmune conditions.  

T cells are lymphocytes that mature in the thymus.  (NOTE THAT THE THYMUS IS TYPICALLY REMOVED IN THE 50% OF CHILDREN WITH DS WHO REQUIRE HEART SURGERY BY 4 MONTHS OLD DUE TO THE PROXIMITY TO THE HEART).  Three types of T cells to mention here are CD8, Cytotoxic T cells, CD4+ Helper T cells, and Suppressor T cells.  Cytotoxic T cells accurately target infected cells.  Helper T cells communicate with other immune cells to initiate and coordinate further attacks.  Suppressor T cells produce signals turning off the immune response to calm the immune system once the threat has passed.  Other lymphocytes called Natural Killer cells immediately spot intruders based on the absence of molecules normally expressed by healthy self cells. They destroy first without calling for back up.  

Phagocytes - larger than lymphocytes and can literally devour potential threats.  Then they present the antigen on their cell surface, migrate to the lymph node and present it to the lymphocytes (B & T cells).  Macrophages are phagocytes positioned around the body where microbes might enter such as the digestive tract, lungs, and mucous membranes. Macrophages can only alert T cells about familiar pathogens though. Dendritic cells are phagocytes that can detect newly encourated microbes and inform the B cells and T cells.  

Granulocytes contain granules that can destroy microbes when they are injected into or sprayed onto potential threats.  One type is mast cells, which play a part in seasonal allergies.  

Cells in the immune system communicate with each other by producing and releasing a variety of proteins known as cytokines.   Chemokines trigger inflammation and attract other immune cells to the area.   Interleukins trigger the immune system to produce additional immune cells.   TRANSFER FACTORS represent a unique messenger used for cell to cell communiation within the immune system, like a cross between interleukins and antibodies and also binding to antigens like antibodies do.  They seem to facilitate the work of the Helper and Cytotoxic T Cells by attaching to antigens on infected self cells and flagging them for destruction.  Transfer factors are named for their ability to transfer cell mediated immunity from one person to another.  Transfer factors extracted from mammalian colostrum and egg yolks appear comparable to those found in human white blood cells. Transfer factors appear to be synonymous with proline-rich-polypeptides (PRP) or colostrinin.

Innate immunity consists of phagocytes, dendrites, Natural Killer cells and is unchangable.  They devour and kill foreighn objects of all types and some present portions of the object they eat to immunature T cells.  This activates the next line of defense, known as the adaptive immune response.   Adaptive immunity is the process by which the body learns about and catalogues new foreign objects.  

Within the adaptive immunity, there is antibody-mediated and cell-mediated immunity.  Antibody mediated immunity is aimed at protecting the body from viruses and pathogens found floating freely in the blood and lymph.  It occurs when B-cells learn about an antigen and create antibodies to it.  The antibodies cling to the antigen and disable it or flag it for destruction.  Cell-mediated immunity is aimed at protecting the body from pathogens like bacteria and virus that invade healthy cells, such as when cytotoxic T cells destroy infected cells.  


Colostrum is the thin fluid produced by breastfeeding mothers. It is produced in abundance during the very first few milkings, and with each milking, less is produced. Colostrum introduces immunoglobulins from the mother to the infant and turns on the child's immune system. Colostrum has incredible immune-balancing benefits.

Colostrum contains a rich array of nutrients, including growth factors, lipidic and glucidic factors, oligosaccharides, antimicrobials, cytokines and nucleosides. This substance introduces the newborn to over 95 different compounds that balance and stabilize the immune system. It also brings in eight growth factors that promote normal cell growth, DNA synthesis, fat utilization and increased mental acuity.

Bovine colostrum has an identical structure to the natural colostrum produced by humans.(Reference)

Also noted from healthline . Colostrum in particular, is higher in protein, fat, carbs, magnesium, B vitamins, and vitamins A, C, and E than cow’s milk. While colostrum is rich in macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals, its claimed health benefits are mostly linked to specific protein compounds, which include:

  • Lactoferrin. Lactoferrin is a protein involved in your body’s immune response to infections, including those caused by bacteria and viruses
  • Growth factors. Growth factors are hormones that stimulate growth. Bovine colostrum is especially high in two protein-based hormones, insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2, or IGF-1 and IGF-2
  • Antibodies. Antibodies are proteins, also known as immunoglobulins, used by your immune system to fight bacteria and viruses. Bovine colostrum is rich in the antibodies IgA, IgG, and IgM/

Historically colostrum has been used for various illnesses in India as well as abroad for thousands of years. Ayurvedic physicians of India have used bovine colostrum for both medicinal and spiritual purposes since cows were first domesticated.

By the late 18th century, Western medicine started to take an interest in colostrum and study it for its potential health benefits. As a consequence, it was prescribed for many conditions, including immune system enhancement.  Interestingly, until the development of penicillin and other artificial antibiotics in the 20th century, colostrum was commonly used for fighting bacterial infections. Bovine colostrum (BC), which can be obtained in large quantities, has been found to be almost identical to human colostrum in terms of its beneficial components. It has also been found to be equally useful for many mammal species, and produces no side-effects.







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Immunological mechanisms of bovine immunoglobulins. Bovine immunoglobulins can modify innate as well as adaptive immunity. By binding directly to pathogens, bovine immunoglobulins can bind to FcγR bearing innate immune cells, leading to phagocytosis and killing. In some cases, as for RSV, bovine IgG may also fully neutralize human pathogens as demonstrated for RSV in vitro (). Other mechanisms of pathogen elimination may be complement mediated pore formation and killing, and ADCC. On the other hand, as bovine IgG-pathogen immune complexes bind to FcγR, receptor mediated uptake and antigen processing is enhanced, resulting in increased T, and ultimately B-cell responses to the pathogens.


The remarkable health benefits of colostrum

Gut health: 
Colostrum is the most prolific substance for boosting sIgA levels in the gut. This provides a balancing effect on the immune system by reducing inflammatory cytokines and pathogenic species in the gut. Colostrum also helps provide raw materials to help repair a damaged gut lining. The intestinal membrane replaces cells every three days, and colostrum supplementation can help heal intestinal problems such as leaky gut syndrome and other permeability issues naturally.

Colostrum provides over 100 times the amount of immunoglobulins as regular milk. Colostrum is also rich in transfer factors that educate and modulate the immune system and successfully teach it to recognize specific antigens. These transfer factors also help coordinate the immune system to be able to recognize the difference between normal tissue and pathological microbes or abnormal tissue growth. These important transfer factors include hydrogen peroxide and immunoglobin G (IgG).

The transfer factors from colostrum are able to boost natural killer cell (NK) activity and calm a hyperactive immune system through activating suppressor T cells. This improves the intelligence of the immune system and allows it to function with greater efficiency. These transfer factors also act as a catalytic memory agent for the immune system to alert naive immune cells of an impending danger.

How to Improve Your Immune Function by Boosting Natural Killer Cells  -  according to Dr Mercola, colostrum can help protect and/or prevent the flu.  


In a 2012 study on mice, oral administration of skimmed and concentrated bovine late colostrum was shown to activate the immune system and protect against influenza infection by boosting NK cell activity.  Another 2014 animal study concluded that, "Colostrum supplementation enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity and improved the immune response to primary influenza virus infection in mice." Colostrum-supplemented mice that did contract the flu also had less severe infection and a lower viral burden in the lungs compared to controls.  An earlier study,21 published in 2007, found treatment with oral colostrum for two months prevented influenza infection three times more effectively than influenza vaccination. According to the authors, "Colostrum, both in healthy subjects and high-risk cardiovascular patients, is at least three times more effective than vaccination to prevent flu and is very cost-effective …"

6 Ways Colostrum Benefits You (source Dr Mercola here)

  • Colostrum is a nutrient contained in the breast milk of nursing mammals.
  • This same serum which is necessary for survival in mammals has been shown to have an extraordinary effect on human immunity and the ability to fight cancer.
  • Lactoferrin, a compound contained in colostrum, is a protein required for the metabolism of iron. Organs and cells in the body have receptors for this protein to bind to and inhibit autoimmune responses and inflammation triggered by problems like leaky gut.
  • Colostrum is associated with the reduced frequency from infection of the following bacteria: Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, and Salmonella.
  • Bovine colostrum (from cows) activates the production of GcMAF in the human body. GcMAF repairs tissue from damage, and supports the immune system in preventing infection, including the growth and spread of cancer.
  • Encouraging clinical results show that the lactoferrin in bovine colostrum activates cytokines, cell proliferation, and boosts detoxification in humans.

Abstracts from PUBMED:  Click on title to read entire article.  (You may have to further click on the full text or article downloaded below the abstract to read the entire article).   I am not making medical claims to diagnose, treat, or cure any medical condition or illness.  This information is taken from research articles that discuss the various areas that have been studied.

Bovine colostrums: a review of clinical uses  

Bovine colostrums are also rich in oligosaccharides, antimicrobials, and immune-regulating factors. Available evidence suggests a beneficial effect of supplementation of bovine colostrums in improving body composition, aspects of athletic performance, diarrhea in persons with immune-deficiency syndromes, NSAID-induced gastrointestinal disturbances, and aspects of the acute phase response that occurs secondary to surgery. Specific hyperimmune bovine colostrums, produced to have high neutralizing titer activity against Cryptosporidia, H. pylori, measles, rotavirus, and Shigella sp., appear to have clinical utility in conditions associated with these infectious organisms.


Bovine colostrum in those with immunodefiency.

Gastrointestinal and respiratory infections are the causes of recurrent morbidity and significant mortality among children in developing countries. IgA is important in protecting the surface tracts like digestive and respiratory tracts and IgA deficiency, even though often transient, is the most common immunodeficiency(1). The use of bovine colostrum rich in IgA is being advised in children for prevention and treatment of various conditions. The rationale behind this is the fact that secretory IgA (SIgA) can resist proteolytic degradation and can survive in the harsh environments of digestive and respiratory tracts. As it is abundant in secretions like tears, saliva and mucosal linings, it is also the first antibody to come in contact with different antigens. Bovine and human SIgA is found to be homologous and colostrum have identified as a rich source ofSIgA(2). SIgA is said to act as blocking and neutralizing antibody and also inhibit potential harmful activation of pro-inflammatory B pathway in the epithelium and enhance stromal clearance of antigen-NF that has breached the mucosal barrier. However, in those with IgA deficiency, there may be potential harmful IgG antibodies against cows’ milk and ruminant serum proteins and against IgA. If the anti-IgA antibodies are of the IgE type, there may be fatal anaphylactic reactions after transfusion of   blood and blood products.



The effect of bovine colostrum on viral upper respiratory tract infections in children with immunoglobulin A deficiency.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA)-deficient patients predominantly suffer from respiratory and gastrointestinal infections since secretory IgA has important functions to protect mucosal surfaces.  Thirty-one IgA-deficient children with viral URT infections were included in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, and randomly oral bovine colostrum or placebo was given three times a day for 1 week. 
The bovine colostrum group had a lower infection severity score than the placebo group after 1 week (respectively 0.81±0.83, 3.00±1.85; P=0.000), but there was no difference between the salivary IgA levels of the groups

Conclusion:  This is the first study to evaluate the effect of bovine colostrum in IgA deficient children, and no adverse effects were observed.  However, further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of bovine colostrum in IgA deficient patients.

The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on salivary IgA in distance runners.

Secretory IgA in saliva (s-IgA) is a potential mucosal immune correlate of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) status. Nutritional supplements may improve mucosal immunity, and could be beneficial to athletes who are at increased risk of URTI. In this study, 35 distance runners (15 female, 20 male, age 35 to 58 y) consumed a supplement of either bovine colostrum or placebo for 12 wk. Saliva samples were taken prior to training at baseline, monthly during supplementation, and 2 wk post supplementation. Median levels of s-IgA increased by 79% in the colostrum group after 12 wk intervention, and the time-dependent change from baseline value was significant (P = 0.0291). This significance was still apparent after adjusting for training volume and self-reporting of upper respiratory symptoms. This study has demonstrated increased s-IgA levels among a cohort of athletes following colostrum supplementation.


Health factors in colostrum:

Colostrum is thick lemon yellow mammary secretion and is rich in proteins. This lasts for 2-4 days after the lactation has started. This is the source of fats, proteins, sugars and micronutrients in the form of vitamins and minerals. This is very rich source of secretory IgA to give protection to gastrointestinal tract (GIT) from various infections in the new born. Certain maternal conditions like eclampsia, diabetes and anemia can affect the composition of colostrum. Colostrum has been used for various illnesses in India for thousands of years. The medical importance was described in ancient medicine ayurveda. In U.S. colostrum was in use for its anti-bacterial activity before the discovery of antibiotics. There are ninety known components in the colostrum. There are two primary components of colostrum : immune factors and growth factors. Colostrum also contains vitamins, minerals and amino acids according to need of neonates.



(a) Specific Antibodies. The immune factors obtained from the mother have shown to fight to against viruses, bacteria, yeast and fungus. There are around 20 specific antibodies in the colostrum to fight microbes like E.coli, Salmonella, Rotavirus, Candida, Streptococcus, Styphylococcus, Cryptosporidium, H.pylori etc. 3,4,6,7 There is adequate transfer of passive immunity against diarrhea.

(b) Immunoglobulins - Immunoglobulins are superior in defense in both treatment and prevention of viral infections, bacterial infections, allergies, yeast and fungus. 6 There are five types of immunoglobulins IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM. Bovine colostrum contains 8%-25%, IgG whereas human colostrum contains 2% IgG. These are protein molecules, saline soluble amino acids which have important role in the body to fight against infections. IgA : operates in tears ,saliva and blood (secretory IgA in the gut) IgD : anti-viral IgE : anti-viral IgM : anti-bacterial IgG : abundant, in lymph and blood, and neutralizes toxins. 

 (c) Prolin Rich Polypeptide (PRP): PRP has been shown to stimulate the thymus to regulate the immune system in the body. PRP stimulates the weakened immune system and also stabilizes hyperactive immune system due to autoimmune diseases and allergies in the body.

(d) Lactoferrin : This is an iron binding protein that plays important role against cancer cells and also has anti- viral and anti-bacterial properties and anti inflammatory properties. Lactoferrin can prevent reproduction of bacteria and releases iron for the red blood cells. Lactoferrin receptors have been identified on the immune cells and in involved in release of cytokines. Lactoferrin has been implicated in treatment of diseases like cancer, HIV, herpes, chronic fatigue, candidiasis and other infections. 

(e) Cytokines : These are the interleukines. They regulate duration and intensity of immune responses. They boost T cells activity and have antiviral and anti- tumor activity. Interleukine-10 is having the anti- inflammatory activity in arthritis and during injury. 

(f)  Lymphokines:  These are the peptides involved in mediating the immune response.

(g) Oligopolysaccharides and Glycoconjugate Sugars: They attract and bind to pathogenic bacteria and prevent their entery in the mucosal lining. They block the entry of Salmonella, Cryptosporidium and Clostridia in leaky gut syndrome? 

(h) Glycoproteins and Trypsin Inhibitors: They inhibit the breakdown of colostrum in the gut, hence it can have its effect in the GI tract. Colostrum inhibits the H.pylori in stomach, so anti-ulcer activity. They protect the immune and growth factors in GI tract. 

(i) Lysozyme : This is an acid resistant hydrolyzing agent that is capable of destroying bacteria and viruses on contact. This is being added to commercial baby food. 

(j) Leucocytes : They stimulate interferon production and slow down the viral reproduction. Interferon also inhibits cellular wall penetration. 

(k) Lactoperoxidase-thiocynate, Peroxidase and Xanthine Oxidase Enzymes: They oxidize bacteria by generating the release of hydrogen peroxide. Lactalbumins: Lactalbumins are active against many form of cancers and viruses. Lactalbumins also raise the serotonin levels, decrease the cartisol levels and improve the mood under stress. 


Effects of bovine colostrum on recurrent respiratory tract infections and diarrhea in children.

BACKGROUND:   Bovine colostrum (BC) has direct antimicrobial and endotoxin-neutralizing effects throughout the alimentary tract, as well as other bioactivities that suppress gut inflammation and promote mucosal integrity and tissue repair under various conditions related to tissue injury. The precise role of BC in respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) infections in children is not well defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of BC administration in preventing recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and diarrhea in children.

METHODS: One hundred sixty children (aged 1-6 years) having recurrent episodes of URTI or diarrhea received BC for 4 weeks. The number of episodes of URTI, diarrhea, and frequency of hospitalization required for URTI and diarrhea occurring during the study period were assessed at weeks 8 and 24.   RESULTS:  From a total number of 160 children, 81 patients (50.63%) were males. The mean age (± SD) was 3.65 (± 2.01) years. The mean (± SD) total number of infections was significantly decreased after BC therapy from 8.6 ± 5.1 at baseline to 5.5 ± 1.2 after 2 months (P < 0.001) and to 5.7 ± 1.6 after 6 months (P < 0.001). The mean (± SD) total number of URTI (P < 0.0001), number of episodes of diarrhea (P < 0.001), and number of hospital admissions (P < 0.001) were significantly decreased after BC therapy.

CONCLUSION:  BC is effective in the prophylaxis of recurrent URTI and diarrhea as it reduces the number of episodes and the hospitalization due to these infections. Results of this study suggest that BC could be provided as a therapeutic option for children with recurrent URTI and diarrhea.

Effects of Bovine Immunoglobulins on Immune Function, Allergy, and Infection.

This review aims to provide an in depth overview of the current knowledge of the effects of bovine immunoglobulins on the human immune system. The stability and functional effects of orally ingested bovine immunoglobulins in milk products are described and potential mechanisms of action are discussed. Orally ingested bovine IgG (bovine IgG) can be recovered from feces, ranging from very low levels up to 50% of the ingested IgG that has passed through the gastrointestinal tract. In infants the recovered levels are higher than in adults most likely due to differences in stomach and intestinal conditions such as pH. This indicates that bovine IgG can be functionally active throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Indeed, a large number of studies in infants and adults have shown that bovine IgG (or colostrum as a rich source thereof) can prevent gastrointestinal tract infections, upper respiratory tract infections, and LPS-induced inflammation. 
Mechanistically, bovine IgG binds to many human pathogens and allergens, can neutralize experimental infection of human cells, and limits gastrointestinal inflammation. Furthermore, bovine IgG binds to human Fc receptors which, enhances phagocytosis, killing of bacteria and antigen presentation and bovine IgG supports gastrointestinal barrier function in in vitro models. These mechanisms are becoming more and more established and explain why bovine IgG can have immunological effects in vivo. The inclusion of oral bovine immunoglobulins in specialized dairy products and infant nutrition may therefore be a promising approach to support immune function in vulnerable groups such as infants, children, elderly and immunocompromised patients.


Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs.

Only few hours of formula feeding may induce pro-inflammatory responses and predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs.

RESULTS:NEC severity and interleukins (IL)-1β and -8 protein concentrations were lower, while villus height, galactose absorption, and brush-border enzyme activities were increased in the distal small intestine in COLOS and FCOLOS pigs, relative to FORM pigs. Intestinal gene expression of serum amyloid A, IL-1β, -6 and -8, and bacterial abundance, correlated positively with NEC severity of the distal small intestine.

Conclusions:  Bovine colostrum restores intestinal function after initial formula induced inflammation in preterm pigs.  Further studies are required to test if bovine colostrum may also benefit preterm infants during the challenging transition from total parental nutrition (TPN) to enteral nutrition, when human milk is unavailable. 

Health-promoting effects of bovine colostrum in Type 2 diabetic patients can reduce blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and ketones.

Bovine colostrum (BC) has been reported to enhance immune function, reduce fat accumulation and facilitate the movement of glucose to the muscle. However, very few attempts have been made to examine its anti-diabetic effects in diabetes patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether BC decreases blood glucose, as well as cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and ketones levels, which can be elevated by obesity and stress in Type 2 diabetic patients. Sixteen patients (men=8, women=8) with Type 2 diabetes were randomized into the study. Each ingested 5 g of BC on an empty stomach every morning and night for 4 weeks. Blood glucose, ketones (β-hydroxybutyric acid), total cholesterol and TGs were measured every week. In both the men and women, blood glucose levels at 2 and 8 h postprandial decreased continually during the experimental period. The rate of decrease in blood glucose at 8 h postprandial was not different between the men and women, but was higher in the women (14.25±2.66) than in the men (10.96±1.82%) at 2 h postprandial. Total cholesterol and TG levels decreased significantly in both the men and women after 4 weeks. Also, β-hydroxybutyric acid level decreased with BC ingestion, but this was not significant. These results suggest that BC can decrease levels of blood glucose and ketones, as well as reduce cholesterol and TGs, all of which may cause complications in Type 2 diabetic patients.

The effectiveness of oral goat colostrum in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: our preliminary experience.

INTRODUCTION:The properties of colostrum were recognized and investigated more thoroughly in the first half of the eighties, when the immune factors and growth factors it contains were pointed out. Numerous studies show that the administration of colostrum benefits the subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus as it gradually regulates appetite, improves utilization of nutrients, especially glucose, and leads to a significant decrease in body fat.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:The following study is aimed at verifying a possible reduction in the use of insulin in 27 subjects with type 2 diabetes, treated with goat colostrum in the form gastro-resistant tablets of 300 mg (4/die).RESULTS: In subjects with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin, the administration of colostrum has obtained a significant reduction of insulin dosage and normalization of blood glucose levels.

CONCLUSIONS:The effects of colostrum are presumably linked to increased levels of IGF-1 that improves the utilization of glucose, stimulates glycogen and protein synthesis.



A study published in the April 2017 journal Nutrients tested bovine colostrum on athletes to see if it helped with leaky gut troubles. The study was small, with only 16 participants, but the authors found that it helped. They suggested that not only could athletes benefit from colostrum supplements, but that people hoping to restore a healthy gut balance after using NSAIDs could benefit.

A review of bovine colostrum studies and clinical trials in the June 2016 edition of the journal Frontiers in Bioscience _concluded that colostrum offers good treatment options for gastrointestinal troubles. The authors noted that more studies are needed and also stated that colostrum supplements could be combined with synthetic drugs to treat many stomach disorders. 

More support for bovine colostrum comes from an article in the September 2015 edition of the Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine. The authors noted that bovine colostrum is, for the most part, considered safe and is well-tolerated.


Hyperimmune bovine colostrum as a novel therapy to combat Clostridium difficile infection.

Non-immune colostrum-treated piglets developed moderate to severe diarrhea and colitis. In contrast, HBC-treated piglets had mild or no diarrhea and mild or no colitis. HBC provides an oral, cost-effective, and safe alternative to antibiotic therapy for CDI. By preserving intestinal microbiota, HBC may be more efficacious than antibiotics. Additional studies are warranted to establish HBC as a viable immunotherapeutic agent for human use against CDI.


Bovine colostrum enhances natural killer cell activity and immune response in a mouse model of influenza infection and mediates intestinal immunity through toll-like receptors 2 and 4.

Colostrum-supplemented mice demonstrated less reduction in body weight after influenza infection, indicating a less severe infection, increased NK cell cytotoxicity, and less virus burden in the lungs compared with controls. Colostrum supplementation enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity and improved the immune response to primary influenza virus infection in mice. 


Prevention of flu episodes with colostrum and Bifivir compared with vaccination: an epidemiological, registry study.

 The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of colostrum (ARD Colostrum) in association with the immunomodulator Bifivir in the prevention of flu episodes compared with anti-flu vaccination. The registry groups included no prevention, vaccination, vaccination+immunomodulators, and immunomodulators only. Groups were comparable for age and sex distribution. In the group without prevention there were 8 major episodes and 12 minor episodes out of 34 subjects; in the vaccination group the respective figures were 8-13/38; in the group treated with a combination of vaccination and immunomodulators (ARD Colostrum + Bifivir) the figures were 4-9/33; and in the group treated with immunomodulators only there were 11 viral episodes (3-8) in 36 subjects. The episodes in the vaccination+immunomodulators and immunomodulators only groups were significantly lower compared with the other two groups 


Role of colostrum in gastrointestinal infections.

The main actions include an antibacterial effect and modulation of immune response with the ability to neutralize lipopolysaccharides arising from gram negative bacterial pathogens. It has been found to be effective in infantile hemorrhagic diarrheas, other diarrheas and reduces the likelihood of disease progressing to hemolytic uremic syndrome. It has also been tested in H. pylori infection and diarrhea in immunodeficiency. Side effects of clinical relevance are limited to possible intolerance due to lactose and sensitivity to milk proteins.



Prevention of influenza episodes with colostrum compared with vaccination in healthy and high-risk cardiovascular subjects: the epidemiologic study in San Valentino.

The efficacy of a 2-month treatment with oral colostrum in the prevention of flu episodes compared with anti-influenza vaccination was evaluated. Groups included healthy subjects without prophylaxis and those receiving both vaccination and colostrum. After 3 months of follow-up, the number of days with flu was 3 times higher in the non-colostrum subjects. The colostrum group had 13 episodes versus 14 in the colostrum + vaccination group, 41 in the group without prophylaxis, and 57 in nontreated subjects. Part 2 of the study had a similar protocol with 65 very high-risk cardiovascular subjects, all of whom had prophylaxis. The incidence of complications and hospital admission was higher in the group that received only a vaccination compared with the colostrum groups. Colostrum, both in healthy subjects and high-risk cardiovascular patients, is at least 3 times more effective than vaccination to prevent flu and is very cost-effective.



Use of immunoglobulin enriched bovine colostrum against oral challenge with enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mice.   

In mice pretreated with streptomycin, EHEC O157:H7 maintained stable levels of bacterial colonization in the intestines for the 3-week experimental time period. Oral administration of colostrum resulted in rapid decrease in the bacteria numbers compared with administration of skim-milk. Colostrum showed no direct in vitro bactericidal properties against either EHEC O157:H7. When sections prepared from cecum walls of streptomycin-pretreated mice were incubated in vitro with EHEC O157:H7, the colostrum significantly prevented the attachment of the organisms to the sections when compared with skim-milk. These results indicate that oral administration of bovine colostrum effectively protects mice against food-borne infections by inhibiting bacterial attachment to the intestinal mucous membrane, colonization and growth in the intestinal tract.


A gene expression programme induced by bovine colostrum whey promotes growth and wound-healing processes in intestinal epithelial cells. 

Results revealed that the expression of a significant number of genes involved in cell migration, adhesion and proliferation was indeed affected in colostrum whey-treated cells. In conclusion, colostrum specific bioactive content could be beneficial for intestinal epithelial cell homoeostasis by controlling biological processes implicated in wound healing through a precise gene expression program.


The nutriceutical bovine colostrum truncates the increase in gut permeability caused by heavy exercise in athletes.

Heavy exercise causes gut symptoms and, in extreme cases, "heat stroke" partially due to increased intestinal permeability of luminal toxins. We examined bovine colostrum, a natural source of growth factors, as a potential moderator of such effects.Colostrum increased HSP70 expression at both 37 and 39°C (P < 0.001) and was truncated by addition of an EGF receptor-neutralizing antibody. Temperature-induced increase in Baxα and reduction in Bcl-2 was partially reversed by presence of colostrum. Colostrum may have value in enhancing athletic performance and preventing heat stroke.


Protective effects of bovine colostrum on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced intestinal damage in rats.

Gut injuries were induced by administration of a single dose of diclofenac.   Diclofenac caused a marked increase in the intestinal permeability, enteric bacterial numbers and intestinal villous damage, and enteric protein and albumin loss. Combined administration of bovine colostrum reduced the increase in intestinal permeability, enteric bacterial overgrowth, protein losing enteropathy and mucosal villous damage of the small intestine induced by diclofenac. Bovine colostrum may have a beneficial effect in prevention of NSAID induced small intestinal injuries.


Co-administration of the health food supplement, bovine colostrum, reduces the acute non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced increase in intestinal permeability.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective analgesics but cause gastrointestinal injury. Bovine colostrum is a cheap, readily available source of growth factors.  For both studies, there was a 2 week washout period between treatment arms. In volunteers, indomethacin caused a 3-fold increase in gut permeability in the control arm on day 5 colostrum was co-administeredIn patients taking long-term NSAID treatment, initial permeability ratios were low (0.13+/-0.02), despite continuing on the drug, and permeability was not influenced by co-administration of test solutions. These studies provide preliminary evidence that bovine colostrum, which is already currently available as an over-the-counter preparation, may provide a novel approach to the prevention of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal damage in humans. gastrointestinal injury in rats and mice.  

Bovine colostrum is a health food supplement which prevents NSAID induced gut damage.

Pretreatment with 0.5 or 1 ml colostral preparation reduced gastric injury by 30% and 60% respectively in rats. A milk preparation was much less efficacious. Recombinant transforming growth factor beta added at a dose similar to that found in the colostrum preparation (12.5 ng/rat), reduced injury by about 60%. Addition of colostrum to drinking water (10% vol/vol) prevented villus shortening in the mouse model of small intestinal injury. Addition of milk preparation was ineffective. Colostrum increased proliferation and cell migration of RIE-1 and HT-29 cells. These effects were mainly due to constituents of the colostrum with molecular weights greater than 30 kDa.

CONCLUSIONS:Bovine colostrum could provide a novel, inexpensive approach for the prevention and treatment of the injurious effects of NSAIDs on the gut and may also be of value for the treatment of other ulcerative conditions of the bowel.

A novel extract from bovine colostrum whey supports innate immune functions. II. Rapid changes in cellular immune function in humans.

RESULTS:  A single dose of CLMWF, when compared to placebo, resulted in rapid increase in phagocytic activity of monocytes at 1 hr.CONCLUSION:  The increased phagocytic activity and rapid transient changes in NK cell numbers suggest that upon consumption, interaction of CLMWF with immune cells in the gut mucosa triggers immediate events with systemic consequences.



Antitumor and chemopreventive activity of lactoferrin

 Lactoferrin, an evolutionary old protein of the transferrin family, is among the proteins constituting the system of innate immunity; its action, however, also extends to the regulation of acquired immunity and other immunological phenomena. The actions of LF, confirmed in numerous in vitro and in vivo models, include participation in iron homeostasis, immunoregulatory properties, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and analgesic actions, regulation of bone metabolism, participation in embryonic development, reproductive functions, and others. Studies showed that LF elevates the number and increases the activity of T and B lymphocytes and NK cells, stimulates the release of a number of cytokines (IL-1, -6, -8, -18, IFN-gamma, TNF alpha), increases phagocytic activity and cytotoxicity of monocytes/macrophages, accelerates the maturation of T and B cells, and elevates the expression of several types of cellular receptors, such as CD4, zeta chain of the CD3 complex, LFA-1, CD11, ICAM-1, and selectin P. Apart from its immunomodulatory properties, LF exhibits direct anti-tumor actions, such as lytic, pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, anti-oxidant activity and the chelation of iron ions. LF also possesses chemo-preventive properties, regulates the activity of phase I and II enzymes participating in the activation and detoxification of carcinogens, and regulates the composition of the intestinal microflora. In this way it prevents the generation of tumors and their development at early stages of carcinogenesis.


Effects of human lactoferrin on NK cell cytotoxicity against haematopoietic and epithelial tumour cells.

Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein implicated in particular in the control of immune functions and cell proliferation. We have investigated its involvement, at inflammatory concentrations, in cancer progression. We report that lactoferrin has a significant effect on natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity against haematopoietic and breast epithelial cell lines. Lactoferrin increases cytolysis at a low concentration (10 micrograms/ml) while at a high concentration (100 micrograms/ml) it modulates cytolysis depending on the target cell phenotype. By pre-treatment of either NK cells or target cells with lactoferrin, we have demonstrated that the lactoferrin effect is due both to a modulation of NK cell cytotoxicity and the target cell sensitivity to lysis. Lactoferrin binds to 91% of the naturally heterogeneous CD56dim/bright NK cell population and increases the NK cell cytotoxic activity at low concentrations. High concentrations of lactoferrin seem to be toxic for the CD56bright NK cells and decrease NK cell cytotoxicity. Lactoferrin also exerts an effect on target cells depending on the cell phenotype. It does not modify the susceptibility to lysis of haematopoietic cells such as Jurkat and K-562 cells, but does significantly increase that of the breast and colon epithelial cells. We have also demonstrated that lactoferrin inhibits epithelial cell proliferation by blocking the cell cycle progression.

Bovine colostrum supplementation attenuates the decrease of salivary lysozyme and enhances the recovery of neutrophil function after prolonged exercise.

Oral supplementation with bovine colostrum (COL) has been shown to enhance immunity in human subjects. However, there is limited research on the use of bovine COL supplementation to counter exercise-induced immunodepression, as a model of stress-induced immunodepression, and previous research has focused primarily on salivary IgA. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of bovine COL supplementation on exercise-induced changes in innate immunity (neutrophil function and salivary lysozyme) in addition to salivary IgA. Twenty healthy, active men cycled for 2 h at approximately 64 % maximal oxygen uptake after 4 weeks of daily bovine COL (n 10) or placebo (PLA, n 10) supplementation. Blood and saliva samples were obtained before and after supplementation, before and after exercise. Exercise induced significant increases in markers of physiological stress and stress to the immune system (circulating neutrophils, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio, immature granulocytes, atypical lymphocytes and plasma cortisol), but there were no differences between the COL and PLA groups. Significant group x time interactions (two-way mixed model ANOVA) were observed for neutrophil function (stimulated degranulation) and salivary lysozyme concentration and release (P < 0.05). Significant exercise-induced decreases were observed in these parameters, and bovine COL supplementation either speeded the recovery (neutrophil function) or prevented the decrease (salivary lysozyme) in these measures of innate immunity. These results suggest that 4 weeks of bovine COL supplementation limits the immunodepressive effects induced by an acute prolonged physical stressor, such as exercise, which may confer some benefits to host defense.


Insulin-like growth factor-1 protects against prion peptide-induced cell death in neuronal cells via inhibition of Bax translocation.

 Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is one of the most important components of bovine colostrum. It exhibits antiapoptotic and antioxidative activities. Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders caused by cell death through mitochondrial dysfunction and increasing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study examined the protective effect of IGF-1 on residues 106-126 of the cellular prion protein [PrP (106-126)]-mediated mitochondrial neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. In SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells, treatment with PrP (106-126) decreased the cell viability and IGF-1 pretreatment markedly blocked the PrP (106-126)-induced neuronal cell death. IGF-1 inhibited PrP (106-126)-induced intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial oxidative stress. In addition, IGF-1 blocked the translocation of the Bax protein to the mitochondria induced by PrP (106-126). These results demonstrate that IGF-1 protects neuronal cells against PrP (106-126)-mediated neurotoxicity through an antioxidative effect and blockage of mitochondrial Bax translocation. The results also suggest that regulation of IGF-1 secretion may have a therapeutic potential in the management of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration.


Immunomodulatory effects of lactoferrin

 Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein of the transferrin family, which is expressed in most biological fluids with particularly high levels in mammalian milk. Its multiple activities lie in its capacity to bind iron and to interact with the molecular and cellular components of hosts and pathogens. Lf can bind and sequester lipopolysaccharides, thus preventing pro-inflammatory pathway activation, sepsis and tissue damages. Lf is also considered a cell-secreted mediator that bridges the innate and adaptive immune responses.


Lactoferrin immune response against pathogens.
Mechanism of action of LfTargetReference
Enhancing of phagocytosisGram-Positive bacteria   S mutans   S epidermidis   S aureus Gram-Negative bacteria:   P aeruginosa   B cepacia   B cenocepacia   Porphyromonas gingivalis Virus:   VSV (Vesicular Stomatitis Virus) Fungi:   Candida spp.   A Fumigatus Parasites:   E histolytica   B caballi   T cruzi,,,,,
Biofilms inhibitionGram-Negative bacteria:   Porphyromonas gingivalis   Prevetella intermedi   P aeruginosa   B cepacia   B cenocepacia   E coli   M bovis Gram-Positive bacteria:   S epidermidis,,,
Positive domain union with negative charges on microorganismsGram-Negative bacteria:   E coli Parasites:   T gondii   E stiedai,
Modification of the interactions of microbes, with the host cells, or with the extracellular matrixGram-Positive bacteria:   B subtilis   K pneumoniae   S mutans Virus:   Rotavirus   Enterovirus,
Inhibits LPS-mediated activationGram-Negative bacteria,,
Induction of apoptosisFungi:   Candida albicans



Effects of Bovine Immunoglobulins on Immune Function, Allergy, and Infection

Several in vitro and animal studies have shown effects of bovine IgG and colostrum in viral respiratory tract infections. Bovine immunoglobulins can bind to—and in vitro even neutralize—RSV, a common childhood pathogen resulting in upper respiratory tract infections in infants especially in the first year of life (). Furthermore, bovine immunoglobulins from non-immunized cows have been shown to be able to bind to human RSV as well as to influenza virus, and are able to prevent the infection of Hep2 cells by human RSV in vitro (). In addition, dietary bovine colostrum could reduce the severity of infection and viral titers in a murine model of RSV infection (). Specificity of the antibodies against respiratory viruses might further enhance efficiency in prevention and/or treatment of disease as was discussed above for gastrointestinal pathogens.

In a follow up study (non-immunized) oral bovine colostrum reduced the severity of influenza infection, by reducing viral load and preventing loss of body-weight (). In addition, splenic NK activity, as well as the production of IgA producing B cells in the small intestine and lungs, was noted in the colostrum group.

 The primary role of immunoglobulins on mucosal surfaces is to bind to pathogens to prevent their entry into the body. This process is termed immune exclusion. During immune exclusion the pathogens as well as the immunoglobulins remain confined to the intestinal lumen and the immunoglobulins prevent adhesion to intestinal epithelium. Hyperimmune bovine immunoglobulins can prevent the adhesion of pathogens to intestinal epithelial cells () and even immunoglobulins from non-immunized cows can prevent adhesion of some pathogens (, ). As an example, the adhesion of Clostridium difficile to human intestinal epithelium cells (Caco-2 cells) was inhibited dose-dependently by normal bovine colostral whey () and spray dried colostrum from normal cows was shown to inhibit the adhesion of several necrotizing enterocolitis-associated pathogens to HT-29 colonic epithelial cells.
At the next level, there are indications that bovine immunoglobulins and colostrum can also support intestinal barrier function. When intestinal barrier function is compromised, bacterial products such as LPS, food allergens, as well as pathogens can passively cross the epithelial layer and cause inflammation and infection in the mucosa. Bovine colostrum can inhibit the NF-κB signaling pathway and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in HT29 cells, suggesting colostrum has direct anti-inflammatory effects on intestinal epithelium (). Furthermore, bovine IgG can also have anti-inflammatory effects by preventing translocation of bacterial components across the epithelial layer. This was investigated in a co-culture model of intestinal epithelial C2BBe1 cells and THP-1 cells. In this model bovine serum derived IgG could prevent the translocation of bacterial components over the epithelium, thus preventing inflammatory responses to bacterial ligands in the underlying THP1 cells.


Subject characterisiticsType of studyProduct, dosage, and durationReported outcomeReferences
1–6 year old Egyptian children with recurrent URTI and/or diarrhea (n = 160)open, non-comparativeColostrum, 3 g/day for <2 6="" day="" for="" g="" year="">2 years, 4 weeksLower number of episodes and hospitalizations for URTI (and GITI)


1–8 y old Indian children with recurrent URTI/diarrhea (n = 605)open, non-comparativeColostrum 3 g/day, 12 weeksLower number of episodes and hospitalizations for URTI (and GITI)


3–9 year old healthy japanese children (active n = 103; placebo n = 104)Placebo controlled, randomized, double blindLate colostrum (10% Igs)- vs. semi skimmed milk tablets 0.5 g/day. 9 weeksFrequency and duration of URTI was lower in the treatment group vs. the control group, especially in the 3–6 year old children
3–7 year old Italian children with recurrent URTI (active n = 67; placebo n = 100)Retrospective observational studySinerga (incl. colostrum, incl probiotics) vs. bacterial extracts 1 sachet (a 3 g)/day, 10 days month 1, 20 days months 2,3,4Greater reduction in the frequency of respiratory infections that needed antibiotic therapy in the group of children supplemented with Sinerga than in the group treated with bacterial extracts.
50–60 year old Italian healthy volunteers (n = 41 vs. n = 36 vs. n = 39 vs. n = 23)Randomized studyVaccination ± colostrum product vs. colostrum only vs. no prophylaxis 1 tablet a 400 mg (25-40% Ig)/day, 8 weeksNumber of days with flu was 3 times higher in the non-colostrum compare to the colostrum treated group (colostrum+vacc 14 vs. vacc only 57 vs. colostrum only 13 episodes vs. non-treated 41)

60–70 year old Italian elderly people with high risk for influenza (heart/lung problems) (n = 21 vs. n = 20 vs. n = 19)Randomized studyvaccination ± colostrum product vs. colostrum only vs. no prophylaxis 1 tablet a 400 mg (25–40% Ig)/day, 8 weeksThe incidence of complications and hospital admission was higher in the group that received only a vaccination compared with the colostrum groups.


Nutritional roles of lactoferrin.

Ingested lactoferrin has been suggested to exert antibacterial and antiviral activities in the intestine, in part through a direct effect on pathogens, but possibly also affecting mucosal immune function. The latter function is most likely mediated by lactoferrin being taken up by cells via a unique receptor-mediated pathway and affecting gene transcription. Lactoferrin has also been shown to enhance iron status of infants and pregnant women, possibly also via the receptor-mediated pathway. In addition, lactoferrin can stimulate intestinal cell proliferation and differentiation, causing expansion of tissue mass and absorptive capacity. On the contrary, lactoferrin has been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis. Recent findings also suggest that oral lactoferrin treatment may have an anti-inflammatory effect on pregnant women, reducing pregnancy complications.

SUMMARY: Lactoferrin treatment may have beneficial preventive and therapeutic effects on infection, inflammation, and cancer as well as enhancing iron status and growth in vulnerable groups.

Oral Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Stool Concentrations of Zonulin in Athletes

Our study provides evidence which suggests that plain bovine colostrum, which is a natural and relatively inexpensive supplement, can be responsible for the effective reversal of inappropriately increased intestinal permeability. The use of it might benefit many patients, in whom increased intestinal permeability would ultimately result in various pathologies [,,,]. Bovine colostrum might also have a preventive role in healthy people and help to restore gut status after use of antibiotics or NSAIDs, both of which can increase intestinal permeability. Among those who may benefit the most from colostrum supplementation are athletes, who not only present tendency to have increased intestinal permeability, but have also been discovered to have increased risk of developing some of the hypersensitivity-based diseases, including allergies.



Health-promoting effects of bovine colostrum in Type 2 diabetic patients can reduce blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and ketones.

Bovine colostrum (BC) has been reported to enhance immune function, reduce fat accumulation and facilitate the movement of glucose to the muscle. However, very few attempts have been made to examine its anti-diabetic effects in diabetes patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether BC decreases blood glucose, as well as cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and ketones levels, which can be elevated by obesity and stress in Type 2 diabetic patients. Sixteen patients (men=8, women=8) with Type 2 diabetes were randomized into the study. Each ingested 5 g of BC on an empty stomach every morning and night for 4 weeks. Blood glucose, ketones (beta-hydroxybutyric acid), total cholesterol and TGs were measured every week. In both the men and women, blood glucose levels at 2 and 8 h postprandial decreased continually during the experimental period. The rate of decrease in blood glucose at 8 h postprandial was not different between the men and women, but was higher in the women (14.25+/-2.66) than in the men (10.96+/-1.82%) at 2 h postprandial. Total cholesterol and TG levels decreased significantly in both the men and women after 4 weeks. Also, beta-hydroxybutyric acid level decreased with BC ingestion, but this was not significant. These results suggest that BC can decrease levels of blood glucose and ketones, as well as reduce cholesterol and TGs, all of which may cause complications in Type 2 diabetic patients.




Other conditions such as Autism, autoimmune disorders, MS, fibromyalgia, cancer, arthritis, TB, herpes, hepatitis and more are discussed in a book called Transfer Factors and Immune System Health  Helping the Body Heal Itself by Strengthening Cell Mediated Immunity by Aaron White, PhD.  




According to the current state of knowledge, colostrum appears to be safe and no contraindications are observed even when administered at high concentrations both in humans and animals (189,190). Some authors have reported lactose intolerance, nausea, flatulence, transient diarrhoea and unspecified abdominal discomfort as possible side effects while other studies specifically reported the absence of side effects (83,128,129,165,137,143,189,190). However, further research is required in order to confirm these data, and, more importantly, to evaluate the effects of colostrum when used for a prolonged periods of time and during pregnancy. Milk allergy is the most frequent food allergy in infancy and childhood. Like milk colostrum contains caseins, a-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, and other minor proteins (immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin) that are deemed to be the main allergens (191). For this reason, colostrum is not recommended for treating individuals who are sensitive to milk proteins.  Again, if you are allergic to cow milk, do not take this product.  You may discuss with you physician alternatives, such as goat colostrum. 

From Livestrong: 
The authors of the Frontiers in Bioscience article said colostrum is safe, even at high dosages, with few side effects. The authors of the Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine article said those who are lactose intolerant may have fewer effects from bovine colostrum than from milk.
Still, the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center advises people who are lactose-intolerant not to take bovine colostrum. Bovine colostrum also contains trace amounts of estrogen, so if you have a hormone-sensitive cancer, you should discuss bovine colostrum with your doctor before taking the supplement.

No transmission of mad cow disease has ever been connected with the dairy industry, either in the U.S. or abroad. To be certain, choose a company that certifies their colostrum to be free of List A diseases like BSE (cause of mad cow disease).  (Ref)

NOTE:  HYPERIMMUNE BOVINE COLOSTRUM:   The FDA approved HIBC under orphan drug status, which grants special status to biological products used to treat rare diseases or conditions. The manufacturing process is as follows:
[HIBC] is produced by cows that have received vaccinations against specific disease-causing organisms. The vaccinations cause the cows to develop antibodies to fight those specific organisms. The antibodies pass into the colostrum. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum has been used in clinical trials for treating AIDS-related diarrhea, diarrhea associated with graft versus host disease following bone marrow transplant, and rotavirus diarrhea in children. 


This was found on webmd.    Please take per label directions or as directed by your physician.   I have read several times to begin slowly, do not begin at full dose or it could cause nausea, flatulence,bloating, or headaches. Also to take an empty stomach when possible. Please stop taking if you experience any unusual symptoms and follow up with your doctor. 

I read several times best preventative results were noted after 8 weeks of use.  

The following doses have been studied in scientific research and seem much higher than you will find in the over the counter capsules, which is typically 1mg (1000 mg) for age 12 and above.  I post these only to show colostrum has been tested at higher doses. 


  • For preventing upper airway infections in people who exercise: 10-20 grams of bovine colostrum daily for 8-12 weeks has been used.
  • For diarrhea in people with HIV: 10-30 grams of bovine colostrum powder has been taken 1-4 times daily for 10-21 days.
  • For the flu (influenza): 400 mg of a defatted freeze-dried bovine colostrum daily for 8 weeks has been used.
  • For infectious diarrhea: 7 grams of bovine colostrum three times daily for 14 days has been used. For preventing infectious diarrhea, 3 grams of bovine colostrum once daily for 4 weeks has been used in children under 1-2 years-old, and 3 grams twice daily for 4 weeks has been used in children 2-6 years-old.
  • For rotaviral diarrhea: 10 grams of bovine colostrum daily for 4 days, or 20-300 mL daily for up to 2 weeks, has been used.


There are many brands found on Amazon, iherb, or at your local health food store. I found most very affordable at $10-$50 a month.   Your health is worth it!  They come in powders, capsules, and chewables.   Look for non GMO sources that have not been given any artificial hormones or antibiotics.  Look for quality sources from happy cows raised in pesticide free pastures.


I hope you have found something in this post useful for you and your family.  There is a lot of information about taking bovine colostrum and transfer factors on the internet.  I highly recommend you use this information as a launching point and continue to learn more through trusted websites and your physician.     I would love to do a follow up with those that try it.   My goal is always to help families learn new ways that may help them to stay healthy.  You may also contact me to learn what product my family uses.

Blessings  ✟,

Those who do not make time for health, will surely have to make time for illness.